International Classification of Sleep Disorders
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is a comprehensive categorization system for sleep disorders developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). It provides a standardized and widely accepted set of diagnostic criteria for sleep disorders and is used by healthcare professionals and researchers around the world.
The ICSD is regularly updated to reflect advances in the field of sleep medicine and currently includes over 80 different sleep disorders, grouped into the following categories:
- Dyssomnias: disorders characterized by difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, or excessive sleepiness during the day. Examples include insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy.
- Parasomnias: abnormal behaviors or physiological events that occur during sleep or the transition between wakefulness and sleep. Examples include sleepwalking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder.
- Sleep-related breathing disorders: disorders characterized by disruptions in normal breathing patterns during sleep. Examples include sleep apnea, snoring, and central sleep apnea.
- Central disorders of hypersomnolence: disorders characterized by excessive sleepiness or prolonged nighttime sleep. Examples include narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.
- Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: disorders characterized by disturbances in the timing and organization of sleep and wakefulness, often related to disruptions in the internal biological clock. Examples include jet lag, shift work sleep disorder, and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.
- Other sleep disorders: disorders that do not fit into the categories listed above. Examples include restless leg syndrome, bruxism (teeth grinding), and sleep-related leg cramps.
By providing a standardized and comprehensive classification system, the ICSD helps healthcare professionals diagnose and treat sleep disorders more effectively, and facilitates research into the underlying causes of sleep disorders.
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