Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS), also known as hypersomnia or periodic hypersomnia, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) lasting days to weeks. The episodes are typically accompanied by other symptoms, such as increased appetite, disorientation, confusion, and behavioral changes, such as irritability, impulsivity, and in some cases, hypersexuality.
KLS primarily affects young people, with onset usually occurring during adolescence, and affects men more often than women.
The exact cause of KLS is unknown, but some studies suggest that it may be related to a malfunction of the hypothalamus, a region of the brain responsible for regulating sleep, hunger, and other functions.
Diagnosis of KLS is based on the patient's symptoms and is often confirmed through the exclusion of other potential causes, such as sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and depression. There is no cure for KLS, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Pharmacotherapy, such as stimulants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, has been used with some success in managing KLS symptoms. However, the effectiveness of these treatments varies from patient to patient, and the best approach for each individual will depend on the specific symptoms and severity of their condition.
- In addition to pharmacotherapy, lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol, and engaging in regular physical activity, can also help improve symptoms and reduce the frequency and duration of episodes.
- KLS can have a profound impact on a person's life, including disrupting education, work, and personal relationships. It is important for individuals with KLS to have access to knowledgeable healthcare professionals who can provide accurate information, support, and effective treatment.
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- Ferini-Strambi, L., Castronovo, V., & Ghidoni, R. (2007). The Kleine-Levin syndrome. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11(1), 65-76.
- Dauvilliers, Y., Arnulf, I., Mignot, E., & Lammers, G. J. (2007). Kleine-Levin syndrome. Lancet Neurology, 6(7), 575-585.
- Arnulf, I., Zeitzer, J. M., File, J., Farber, N., & Mignot, E. (2000). Kleine-Levin syndrome: a systematic review of 186 cases in the literature. Brain, 123(Pt 3), 853-863.
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